“If I am lucky, I will spend the rest of my life finding new things that I will never quite be able to explain” - Thomas M Schofield
Integrating ecosystem connectivity into the design of marine protected area networks
Marine protected area (MPA) networks are commonly designated to achieve ecosystem-level conservation objectives. To design MPA networks capable of achieving such objectives, there has been a strong emphasis placed on the importance of incorporating connectivity into their design. Approaches to incorporate connectivity, however, have primarily been developed from a population-based, biotic perspective that overlooks the abiotic components of ecosystems. Ecological evidence suggests that ecosystem connectivity - the movement of materials, including organisms, detritus, and inorganic nutrients, between ecosystems - can be a fundamental driver of ecosystem dynamics, emphasizing the need for MPA network design strategies to adopt a broader, ecosystem-based perspective on connectivity. Here, we propose a conceptual framework for integrating ecosystem connectivity into the design of MPA networks, using the best available data.
Integrating ecosystem connectivity into the design of marine protected area networks.
Dynamic ocean management, or management that uses near real-time data to guide the spatial distribution of commercial activities, is an emerging approach to balance ocean resource use and conservation. Employing a wide range of data types, dynamic ocean management can be used to meet multiple objectives—for example, managing target quota, bycatch reduction, and reducing interactions with species of conservation concern. Here, we present several prominent examples of dynamic ocean management that highlight the utility, achievements, challenges, and potential of this approach. Regulatory frameworks and incentive structures, stakeholder participation, and technological applications that align with user capabilities are identified as key ingredients to support successful implementation. By addressing the variability inherent in ocean systems, dynamic ocean management represents a new approach to tackle the pressing challenges of managing a fluid and complex environment.
Lewison, Rebecca, Hobday, Alistair J., Maxwell, Sara, Hazen, Elliott. Hartog, Jason R., Dunn, Daniel C., Briscoe, Dana et al. “Dynamic Ocean Management: Identifying the Critical Ingredients of Dynamic Approaches to Ocean Resource Management.” BioScience (2015): biv018. DOI: 10.1093/biosci/biv018
The impacts of human visitation density on species richness of the intertidal zone
This study sought to determine if human visitation density was negatively correlated to the species richness of Cornwall’s intertidal zone. Hard data on visitor numbers to Cornwall’s coastal areas was conspicuous in its absence, however several proxies for human visitation density were used: car park availability, ease of access to the embayment and if the embayment was lifeguarded. The number of biotopes in each intertidal zone was also correlated with species richness. Intertidal species richness was positively correlated to the number of biotopes, and negatively correlated to car park availability, suggesting that species richness is likely to be negatively impacted with human visitation density. A number of factors may have contributed to the lack of correlation between species richness and ease of access or lifeguard presence, including sampling design. Improved monitoring and sampling protocols are necessary to improve intertidal biodiversity management.
BC’s MPAs - Protected Areas or ‘Paper Parks’? A Legislative Perspective
In this essay, I looked at the various designations of marine protected area’s (MPA’s) found within the territorial waters of British Columbia, Canada. Designations were objectively compared both to each other and to the non-protected marine environment. Comparison was undertaken by the relative level of protection each MPA and the non-protected area, offered from a wide range of activities that are known to negatively impact the marine environment.
Marine Stewardship Council – Lobster Fishery
This leaflet was produced for the Jersey commercial lobster industry as part of initial Government liaisons into the possibility of gaining MSC certification. The leaflet aimed to bring key aspects of the MSC process to the attention of individuals involved in the local lobster industry in a user friendly manner. The industry is now fully certified.
Biodiversity Action Plan – Strandline Habitat
This document was written for the States of Jersey in 2009. At the time of writing, the Island had its ‘natural’ strandline, but also suffered from large amount of Ulva lactuca appearing in one of its bays, most likely originating from anthropogenic sources. Ecological implication and management approaches to the two strandlines differed on several points.
Food-webs of Cornwall’s Rockpools
Understanding ecological communities is vital for the success of conservation efforts. One way to understand a community is by diagramming food webs, which can not only provide an overview of a community’s structure, which and how species interact, but are also key to sustainable management of marine biodiversity. Food webs are constructed according to the trophic levels and functional groups of the organisms of a particular ecosystem. This collection aims to demonstrate the ecological community of Cornwall’s rock pool systems using food webs. Three webs have been produced – one for lower shores, one for mid shore and one for upper shore rock pools.